Aspetto Faunistico
Comosci sul Monte Meta Lupo


Il Comune di Alfedena è un territorio di notevole pregio ambientale. Le specie animali presenti sono numerosissime e non è possibile in questo contesto elencarle tutte. Tra le entità faunistiche di maggior rilievo possiamo annoverare il
Camoscio appenninico (Rupicapra pyrenaica ornata), animale con caratteristiche uniche che lo differenziano dalle altre forme di Camoscio alpino. E’ un animale erbivoro, che vive prevalentemente nelle praterie di altitudine, ma in inverno , con la neve, discende a valle nel bosco. Un nucleo consistente si può osservare sui Monti della Meta. Tra la fauna importante non si può non citare l’Orso bruno marsicano (Ursus arctos marsicanus), adottato come simbolo del Parco Nazionale d'Abruzzo Lazio e Molise, in quanto in Italia la popolazione vive quasi interamente in questi territori. L’Orso è un animale che conduce vita solitaria, esclusa la stagione degli amori. La sua dieta è composta da vegetali ed animali, è ghiotto di frutti, bacche, ghiande e miele, mentre gli insetti forniscono un’ importante fonte di proteine. L’incontro con questo mammifero è difficilissimo visto che dispone di un olfatto eccezionale: è un’ esperienza emozionante osservarlo nel suo ambiente naturale, magari alle prese con una pianta di pero selvatico. Nel territorio è presente anche il Lupo appenninico (Canis lupus): perseguitato fino agli anni ’70 , ridotto a pochi esemplari, è fuori pericolo d’estinzione grazie all’ habitat naturale di queste montagne. I lupi vivono in branchi in cui tutti gli individui collaborano alla caccia e all’allevamento dei cuccioli. Tra le specie reintrodotte figura il Cervo (Cervus elaphus), animale imponente che si può incontrare all’imbrunire nei pascoli. Nel periodo degli amori (settembre-ottobre) è facile sentire il bramito e assistere alla lotta tra i maschi per la conquista delle femmine (formazione dell’harem); rilevante sito di osservazione è il pianoro di Campitelli.
Più difficile è l’avvistamento del
Capriolo (Capreolus capreolus) animale timido e prudente legato principalmente agli ambienti boschivi. Nel mese di luglio e possibile ascoltare il suo richiamo, un caratteristico abbaio, attraverso il quale marca il proprio territorio. Tra i piccoli mammiferi è presente lo Scoiattolo meridionale (Sciurus vulgaris meridionalis); particolarmente amato dai bambini; lo si può osservare anche tra le chiome degli alberi della villa comunale. Numerosi sono gli Uccelli ,tra cui il più maestoso l’Aquila reale (Aquila chrysactos) domina le cime delle montagne più alte ed inaccessibili. Tra gli altri rapaci frequente è la Poiana (Buteo buteo) e schiva è la Civetta (Athene noctua).
Nei bacini lacustri e nelle aree palustri sono facili da osservare: il Germano reale (Anas platyrhynchos), l’Airone cenerino (Ardea cinerea), il Merlo acquaiolo (Cinclus cinclus). Nelle aree boschive si incontrano spesso la Ghiandaia (Garrulus glandarius), il Picchio verde (Picus viridis), mentre nelle fredde giornate d’inverno si scorge il Merlo (Turdus merula) in cerca di cibo anche negli orti del paese. Gli Anfibi presenti comprendono specie endemiche dell’Appennino come la Salamandra dagli occhiali (Salamandrina terdigitata) e la Salamandra pezzata appenninica (Salamandra salamandra gigliolii); più comuni sono il tritone crestato (Triturus cristatus carnifex) e l’Ululone dal ventre giallo (Bombina variegata pachypus).
Tra i rettili ricordiamo la comune vipera aspide (Vipera aspis) e la più rara vipera dell’Orsini (Vipera ursinii) localizzata nelle praterie di alta quota, dove si ciba prevalentemente di insetti. Gli invertebrati presenti sono numerosi. Tra gli insetti si annoverano un certo numero di endemismi. Nella faggeta vive, soprattutto nei grandi e vecchi faggi, la Rosalia alpina uno splendido cerambicide dalle lunghe antenne e dalla corazza di colore azzurro con macchie scure vellutate. Specie seriamente minacciata dalla scomparsa dei boschi maturi è uno dei coleotteri più belli della fauna europea. Sulle montagne della Meta è facile incontrare una “cavaletta” endemica priva di ali: l’Italopodisma trapezoidalis trapezoidalis; considerati relitti glaciali, le Italopodisma popolavano l’Appennino probabilmente fin dalla fine del Miocene, differenziandosi nel Pleistocene. Altro insetto di alta montagna, ma a rischio d’estinzione, è la fiabesca farfalla Apollo (Parnassius apollo), lepidottero bianco, sfumato di grigio, con macchie nere sulle ali anteriori e macchie rosse su quelle posteriori. Una presenza importante è il coleottero Osmoderma eremita: insetto di taglia medio grande dalla livrea di colore bruno scuro, che si rinviene in formazioni boschive mature e si sviluppa in un microhabitat particolare ovvero nelle cavità di vecchi alberi per lo più salici, querce e faggio. Caratteristico è l’odore (assimilabile al “cuoio di Russia”) emesso da un feromone dei maschi, che serve ad attrarre le femmine. E’ una specie in diminuzione per la riduzione del particolare microhabitat in cui vive.







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